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类似需求用SSIS或者其他ETL工作很容易实现

2020-04-15 03:16

缘由

日常工作中经常遇到类似的问题:把某个服务器上的某些指定的表同步到另外一台服务器。

类似需求用SSIS或者其他ETL工作很容易实现,比如用SSIS的话,就会会存在相当一部分反复的手工操作。

建源的数据库信息,目标的数据库信息,如果是多个表,需要一个一个地拉source和target,然后一个一个地mapping,然后运行实现数据同步。

然后很可能,这个workflow使用也就这么一次,就寿终正寝了,却一样要浪费时间去做这个ETL。

快速数据同步实现

于是在想,可不可能快速实现类似需求,尽最大程度减少重复的手工操作?类似基于命令行的方式,简单快捷,不需要太多的手动操作。

于是就有了本文,基于Python,快速实现SQL Server的数据库之间的数据同步操作,后面又稍微扩展了一下,可以实现不同服务器的数据库之间的表结构,表对应的数据,存储过程,函数,用户自定义类型表的同步

目前支持在两个SQL Server数据源之间:每次同步一张或者多张表/存储过程,也可以同步整个数据库的所有表/存储过程。

支持sqlserver2012以上版本

需要考虑到一些基本的校验问题:在源服务器上,需要同步的对象是否存在,或者输入的对象是否存在于源服务器的数据库里。

在目标服务器上,对于表的同步:

1,表的存在依赖于schema,需要考虑到表的schema是否存在,如果不存在先在target库上创建表对应的schema

2,target表中是否有数据?如果有数据,是否以覆盖的方式执行

对于存储过程的同步:

1,类似于表,需要考虑存储过程的schema是否存在,如果不存在先在target库上创建表对应的schema2,类似于表,arget数据库中是否已经存在对应的存储过程,是否以覆盖的方式执行3,存储过程可能依赖于b表,某些函数,用户自定义表变量等等,同步存储过程的时候需要先同步依赖的对象,这一点比较复杂,实现过程中遇到在很多很多的坑

可能存在对象A依赖于对象B,对象B依赖于对象C……,这里有点递归的意思

这一点导致了重构大量的代码,一开始都是直来直去的同步,无法实现这个逻辑,切实体会到代码的“单一职责”原则

参数说明

参数说明如下,大的包括四类:

1,源服务器信息 ,没有用户名密码的情况下,使用windows身份认证模式

2,目标服务器信息,没有用户名密码的情况下,使用windows身份认证模式

3,同步的对象类型以及对象

4,同步的对象在目标服务器上存在的情况下,是否强制覆盖

其实在同步数据的时候,也可以把需要同步的行数提取出来做参数,比较简单,这里暂时没有做。

比如需要快速搭建一个测试环境,需要同步所有的表结构和每个表的一部分数据即可。

表以及数据同步

表同步的原理是,创建目标表,遍历源数据的表,生成insert into values(***),(***),(***)格式的sql,然后插入目标数据库,这里大概步骤如下:

1,表依赖于schema,所以同步表之前先同步schema

2,强制覆盖的情况下,会drop掉目标表,防止目标表与源表结构不一致,非强制覆盖的情况下,如果字段不一致,则抛出异常

3,同步表结构,包括字段,索引,约束等等,但是无法支持外键,刻意去掉了外键,想想为什么?因吹斯汀。

4,需要筛选出来非计算列字段,insert语句只能是非计算列字段

5,转义处理,在拼凑SQL的时候,需要进行转义处理,否则会导致SQL语句错误,目前处理了字符串中的'字符,二进制字段,时间字段的转义处理

6,鉴于insert into values(***),(***),(***)语法上允许的最大值是1000,因此每生成1000条数据,就同步一次

7,自增列的identity_insert标识打开与关闭处理

使用如下参数,同步源数据库的三张表到目标数据库,因为这里是在本机命名实例下测试,因此实例名和端口号输入

执行同步的效果

说明:

1,如果输入obj_type="tab" 且-obj=为None的情况下,会同步源数据库中的所有表。2,这个效率取决于机器性能和网络传输,本机测试的话,每秒中可以提交3到4次,也就是每秒钟可以提交3000~4000行左右的数据。

已知的问题:

1,当表的索引为filter index的时候,无法生成包含where条件的索引创建语句,那个看起来蛋疼的表结构导出语句,暂时没时间改它。2,暂时不支持其他少用的类型字段,比如地理空间字段什么的。

存储过程对象的同步

存储过程同步的原理是,在源数据库上生成创建存储过程的语句,然后写入目标库,这里大概步骤如下:1,存储过程依赖于schema,所以同步存储过程之前先同步schema2,同步的过程会检查依赖对象,如果依赖其他对象,暂停当前对象同步,先同步依赖对象3,重复第二步骤,直至完成4,对于存储过程的同步,如果是强制覆盖的话,强制覆盖仅仅对存储过程自己生效,对依赖对象并不生效,如果依赖对象不存在,就创建,否则不做任何事情

使用如下参数,同步源数据库的两个存储过程到目标数据库,因为这里是在本机命名实例下测试,因此实例名和端口号输入

说明:测试要同步的存储过程之一为[dbo].[sp_test01],它依赖于其他两个对象:dbo.table01和dbo.fn_test01()

create proc [dbo].[sp_test01]asbegin set no count on; delete from dbo.table01 where id = 1000 select dbo.fn_test01()end

而dbo.fn_test01()的如下,依赖于另外一个对象:dbo.table02

create function [dbo].[fn_test01]()RETURNS intASBEGIN declare @count int = 0 select @count = count(1) from dbo.table02 return @countEND

因此,这个测试的[dbo].[sp_test01]就依赖于其他对象,如果其依赖的对象不存在,同步的时候,仅仅同步这个存储过程本身,是没有意义的

同步某一个对象的依赖对象,使用如下SQL查出来对象依赖信息,因此这里就层层深入,同步依赖对象。这里就类似于同步A的时候,A依赖于B和C,然后停止同步A,先同步B和C,同步B或者C的时候,可能又依赖于其他对象,然后继续先同步其依赖对象。

效果如下

如果输入obj_type="sp" 且-obj=为None的情况下,会同步源数据库中的所有存储过程以及其依赖对象

已知的问题:

1,加密的存储过程或者函数是无法实现同步的,因为无法生成创建对象的脚本1,table type的同步也是一个蛋疼的过程,目前支持,但是支持的并不好,原因是创建table type之前,先删除依赖于table type的对象,否则无法删除与创建。

特别说明

依赖对象的解决,还是比较蛋疼的

如果在默认schema为dbo的对象,在存储过程或者函数中没有写schema,使用 sys.dm_sql_referenced_entities这个系统函数是无法找到其依赖的对象的,奇葩的是可以找到schema的类型,却没有返回对象本身。

这一点导致在代码中层层深入,进行了长时间的debug,完全没有想到这个函数是这个鸟样子,因为这里找到依赖对象的类型,却找不到对象本身,次奥!!!另外一种情况就是动态SQL了,无法使用 sys.dm_sql_referenced_entities这个系统函数找到其依赖的对象。

其他对象的同步

支持其他数据库对象的同步,比如function,table type等,因为可以在同步其他存储过程对象的时候附带的同步function,table type,这个与表或者存储过程类似,不做过多说明。

已知问题:

1,201906122030:经测试,目前暂时不支持Sequence对象的同步。

需要改进的地方

1,代码结构优化,更加清晰和条例的结构2,数据同步的效率问题,对于多表的导入导出操作,依赖于单线程,多个大表导出串行的话,可能存在效率上的瓶颈,如何根据表的数据量,尽可能平均地分配多多个线程中,提升效率3,更加友好清晰的异常提示以及日志记录,生成导出日志信息。4,异构数据同步,MySQL《==》SQL Server《==》Oracle《==》PGSQL

代码端午节写好了,这几天抽空进行了一些测试以及bug fix,应该还潜在不少未知的bug,工作量比想象中的大的多了去了。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-# !/usr/bin/env python3__author__ = 'MSSQL123'__date__ = '2019-06-07 09:36'import osimport sysimport timeimport datetimeimport pymssqlfrom decimal import Decimalusage = ''' -----parameter explain----- source database parameter -s_h : soure database host ----- must require parameter -s_i : soure database instace name ----- default instance name MSSQL -s_d : soure database name ----- must require parameter -s_u : soure database login ----- default windows identifier -s_p : soure database login password ----- must require when s_u is not null -s_P : soure database instance port ----- default port 1433 target database parameter -t_h : target database host ----- must require parameter -t_i : target database instace name ----- default instance name MSSQL -t_d : target database name ----- must require parameter -t_u : target database login ----- default windows identifier -t_p : target database login password ----- must require when s_u is not null -t_P : target database instance port ----- default port 1433 sync object parameter -obj_type : table or sp or function or other databse object ----- tab or sp or fn or tp -obj : table|sp|function|type name ----- whick table or sp sync overwirte parameter -f : force overwirte target database object ----- F or N --help: help document Example: python DataTransfer.py -s_h=127.0.0.1 -s_P=1433 -s_i="MSSQL" -s_d="DB01" -obj_type="tab" -obj="dbo.t1,dbo.t2" -t_h=127.0.0.1 -t_P=1433 -t_i="MSSQL" -t_d="DB02" -f="Y" python DataTransfer.py -s_h=127.0.0.1 -s_P=1433 -s_i="MSSQL" -s_d="DB01" -obj_type="sp" -obj="dbo.sp1,dbo.sp2" -t_h=127.0.0.1 -t_P=1433 -t_i="MSSQL" -t_d="DB02" -f="Y" '''class SyncDatabaseObject(object): # source databse s_h = None s_i = None s_P = None s_u = None s_p = None s_d = None # obj type s_obj_type = None # sync objects s_obj = None # target database t_h = None t_i = None t_P = None t_u = None t_p = None t_d = None f = None file_path = None def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): for k, v in kwargs.items(): setattr(self, k, v) # connect to sqlserver def get_connect(self, _h, _i, _P, _u, _p, _d): cursor = False try: if (_u) and (_p): conn = pymssql.connect(host=_h, server=_i, port=_P, user=_u, password=_p, database=_d) else: conn = pymssql.connect(host=_h, server=_i, port=_P, database=_d) if (conn): return conn except: raise return conn # check connection def validated_connect(self, _h, _i, _P, _u, _p, _d): if not (self.get_connect(_h, _i, _P, _u, _p, _d)): print("connect to " + str(_h) + " failed,please check you parameter") exit(0) ''' this is supposed to be a valid object name just like xxx_name,or dbo.xxx_name,or [schema].xxx_name or schema.[xxx_name] then transfer this kind of valid object name to format object name like [dbo].[xxx_name](give a default dbo schema name when no schema name) other format object name consider as unvalid,will be rasie error in process format object name 1,xxx_name ====== [dbo].[xxx_name] 2,dbo.xxx_name ====== [dbo].[xxx_name] 3,[schema].xxx_name ====== [dbo].[xxx_name] 3,schema.xxx_name ====== [schema].[xxx_name] 4,[schema].[xxx_name] ====== [schema].[xxx_name] 5,[schema].[xxx_name ====== rasie error format message ''' @staticmethod def format_object_name(name): format_name = "" if ("." in name): schema_name = name[0:name.find(".")] object_name = name[name.find(".") + 1:] if not ("[" in schema_name): schema_name = "[" + schema_name + "]" if not ("[" in object_name): object_name = "[" + object_name + "]" format_name = schema_name + "." + object_name else: if ("[" in name): format_name = "[dbo]." + name else: format_name = "[dbo]." + "[" + name + "]" return format_name ''' check user input object is a valid object ''' def exits_object(self, conn, name): conn = conn cursor_source = conn.cursor() # get object by name from source db sql_script = r'''select top 1 1 from ( select concat(QUOTENAME(schema_name(schema_id)),'.',QUOTENAME(name)) as obj_name from sys.objects union all select concat(QUOTENAME(schema_name(schema_id)),'.',QUOTENAME(name)) as obj_name from sys.types )t where obj_name = '{0}' '''.format(self.format_object_name(name)) cursor_source.execute(sql_script) result = cursor_source.fetchall() if not result: return 0 else: return 1 conn.cursor.close() conn.close() # table variable sync def sync_table_variable(self, tab_name, is_reference): conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() if (self.exits_object(conn_source, self.format_object_name(tab_name)))  0: pass else: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("--------warning: object " + tab_name + " not existing in source database ------------") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() return exists_in_target = 0 sql_script = r'''select top 1 1 from sys.table_types tp where is_user_defined = 1 and concat(QUOTENAME(schema_name(tp.schema_id)),'.',QUOTENAME(tp.name)) = '{0}' '''  .format((self.format_object_name(tab_name))) # if the table schema exists in target server,skip cursor_target.execute(sql_script) exists_in_target = cursor_target.fetchone() # weather exists in target server database if (self.f == "Y"): if (is_reference != "Y"): # skiped,table type can not drop when used by sp sql_script = r''' if OBJECT_ID('{0}') is not null drop type {0} '''.format(self.format_object_name(tab_name)) cursor_target.execute(sql_script) conn_target.commit() else: if exists_in_target: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("the target table type " + tab_name + " exists ,skiped sync table type from source") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() return sql_script = r''' DECLARE @SQL NVARCHAR(MAX) = '' SELECT @SQL = 'CREATE TYPE ' + '{0}' + 'AS TABLE' + CHAR(13) + '(' + CHAR(13) + STUFF(( SELECT CHAR(13) + ' , [' + c.name + '] ' + CASE WHEN c.is_computed = 1 THEN 'AS ' + OBJECT_DEFINITION(c.[object_id], c.column_id) ELSE CASE WHEN c.system_type_id != c.user_type_id THEN '[' + SCHEMA_NAME(tp.[schema_id]) + '].[' + tp.name + ']' ELSE '[' + UPPER(y.name) + ']' END + CASE WHEN y.name IN ('varchar', 'char', 'varbinary', 'binary') THEN '(' + CASE WHEN c.max_length = -1 THEN 'MAX' ELSE CAST(c.max_length AS VARCHAR(5)) END + ')' WHEN y.name IN ('nvarchar', 'nchar') THEN '(' + CASE WHEN c.max_length = -1 THEN 'MAX' ELSE CAST(c.max_length / 2 AS VARCHAR(5)) END + ')' WHEN y.name IN ('datetime2', 'time2', 'datetimeoffset') THEN '(' + CAST(c.scale AS VARCHAR(5)) + ')' WHEN y.name = 'decimal' THEN '(' + CAST(c.[precision] AS VARCHAR(5)) + ',' + CAST(c.scale AS VARCHAR(5)) + ')' ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN c.collation_name IS NOT NULL AND c.system_type_id = c.user_type_id THEN ' COLLATE ' + c.collation_name ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN c.is_nullable = 1 THEN ' NULL' ELSE ' NOT NULL' END + CASE WHEN c.default_object_id != 0 THEN ' CONSTRAINT [' + OBJECT_NAME(c.default_object_id) + ']' + ' DEFAULT ' + OBJECT_DEFINITION(c.default_object_id) ELSE '' END END From sys.table_types tp Inner join sys.columns c on c.object_id = tp.type_table_object_id Inner join sys.types y ON y.system_type_id = c.system_type_id WHERE tp.is_user_defined = 1 and y.name'sysname' and concat(QUOTENAME(schema_name(tp.schema_id)),'.',QUOTENAME(tp.name)) = '{0}' ORDER BY c.column_id FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 7, ' ') + ');' select @SQL as script '''.format(self.format_object_name(self.format_object_name((tab_name)))) cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() cursor_source.execute(sql_script) row = cursor_source.fetchone() try: if not exists_in_target: # execute the script on target server cursor_target.execute(str(row[0])) # drop current stored_procudre if exists conn_target.commit() print("*************table type " + self.format_object_name(tab_name) + " synced *********************") print() # give a blank row when finish except: print("----------------------- error message -----------------------") print("-----------table type " + self.format_object_name(tab_name) + " synced error ---------------") print("----------------------- error message -----------------------") print() # raise cursor_source.close() conn_source.close() cursor_target.close() conn_target.close() # schema sync def sync_schema(self): conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() arr_schema = [] # get all table in database when not define table name schema_result = cursor_source.execute(r''' select name from sys.schemas where schema_id4 and schema_id16384 ''') for row in cursor_source.fetchall(): cursor_target.execute(r''' if not exists(select * from sys.schemas where name = '{0}') begin exec('create schema [{0}]') end '''.format(str(row[0]))) conn_target.commit() cursor_source.close() conn_source.close() cursor_target.close() conn_target.close() def sync_table_schema_byname(self, tab_name, is_reference): conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() if (self.exits_object(conn_source, self.format_object_name(tab_name)) == 0): print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("---------------warning: object " + tab_name + " not existing in source database ----------------") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() return # if exists a reference table for sp,not sync the table agagin if (self.exits_object(conn_target, self.format_object_name(tab_name))  0): if (self.f != "Y"): print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("---------------warning: object " + tab_name + " existing in target database ----------------") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() return sql_script = r''' select top 1 1 from sys.tables where type_desc = 'USER_TABLE' and concat(QUOTENAME(schema_name(schema_id)),'.',QUOTENAME(name)) = '{0}' '''.format((self.format_object_name(tab_name))) # if the table schema exists in target server,skip cursor_target.execute(sql_script) exists_in_target = cursor_target.fetchone() if exists_in_target: if (self.f == "Y"): if (is_reference != "Y"): cursor_target.execute("drop table {0}".format(tab_name)) else: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("the target table " + tab_name + " exists ,skiped sync table schema from source") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() return sql_script = r''' DECLARE @object_name SYSNAME , @object_id INT SELECT @object_name = '[' + s.name + '].[' + o.name + ']' , @object_id = o.[object_id] FROM sys.objects o WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.schemas s WITH (NOWAIT) ON o.[schema_id] = s.[schema_id] WHERE QUOTENAME(s.name) + '.' + QUOTENAME(o.name) = '{0}' AND o.[type] = 'U' AND o.is_ms_shipped = 0 DECLARE @SQL NVARCHAR(MAX) = '' ;WITH index_column AS ( SELECT ic.[object_id] , ic.index_id , ic.is_descending_key , ic.is_included_column , c.name FROM sys.index_columns ic WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.columns c WITH (NOWAIT) ON ic.[object_id] = c.[object_id] AND ic.column_id = c.column_id WHERE ic.[object_id] = @object_id ), fk_columns AS ( SELECT k.constraint_object_id , cname = c.name , rcname = rc.name FROM sys.foreign_key_columns k WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.columns rc WITH (NOWAIT) ON rc.[object_id] = k.referenced_object_id AND rc.column_id = k.referenced_column_id JOIN sys.columns c WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.[object_id] = k.parent_object_id AND c.column_id = k.parent_column_id WHERE k.parent_object_id = @object_id ) SELECT @SQL = 'CREATE TABLE ' + @object_name + '' + '(' + '' + STUFF(( SELECT '' + ', [' + c.name + '] ' + CASE WHEN c.is_computed = 1 THEN 'AS ' + cc.[definition] ELSE UPPER(tp.name) + CASE WHEN tp.name IN ('varchar', 'char', 'varbinary', 'binary', 'text') THEN '(' + CASE WHEN c.max_length = -1 THEN 'MAX' ELSE CAST(c.max_length AS VARCHAR(5)) END + ')' WHEN tp.name IN ('nvarchar', 'nchar') THEN '(' + CASE WHEN c.max_length = -1 THEN 'MAX' ELSE CAST(c.max_length / 2 AS VARCHAR(5)) END + ')' WHEN tp.name IN ('datetime2', 'time2', 'datetimeoffset') THEN '(' + CAST(c.scale AS VARCHAR(5)) + ')' WHEN tp.name = 'decimal' THEN '(' + CAST(c.[precision] AS VARCHAR(5)) + ',' + CAST(c.scale AS VARCHAR(5)) + ')' ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN c.collation_name IS NOT NULL THEN ' COLLATE ' + c.collation_name ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN c.is_nullable = 1 THEN ' NULL' ELSE ' NOT NULL' END + CASE WHEN dc.[definition] IS NOT NULL THEN ' DEFAULT' + dc.[definition] ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN ic.is_identity = 1 THEN ' IDENTITY(' + CAST(ISNULL( /*ic.seed_value*/ 1, '0') AS CHAR(1)) + ',' + CAST(ISNULL(ic.increment_value, '1') AS CHAR(1)) + ')' ELSE '' END END + '' FROM sys.columns c WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.types tp WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.user_type_id = tp.user_type_id LEFT JOIN sys.computed_columns cc WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.[object_id] = cc.[object_id] AND c.column_id = cc.column_id LEFT JOIN sys.default_constraints dc WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.default_object_id != 0 AND c.[object_id] = dc.parent_object_id AND c.column_id = dc.parent_column_id LEFT JOIN sys.identity_columns ic WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.is_identity = 1 AND c.[object_id] = ic.[object_id] AND c.column_id = ic.column_id WHERE c.[object_id] = @object_id ORDER BY c.column_id FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '' + ' ') + ISNULL((SELECT '' + ', CONSTRAINT [' + k.name + '] PRIMARY KEY (' + (SELECT STUFF(( SELECT ', [' + c.name + '] ' + CASE WHEN ic.is_descending_key = 1 THEN 'DESC' ELSE 'ASC' END FROM sys.index_columns ic WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.columns c WITH (NOWAIT) ON c.[object_id] = ic.[object_id] AND c.column_id = ic.column_id WHERE ic.is_included_column = 0 AND ic.[object_id] = k.parent_object_id AND ic.index_id = k.unique_index_id FOR XML PATH(N''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '')) + ')' + '' FROM sys.key_constraints k WITH (NOWAIT) WHERE k.parent_object_id = @object_id AND k.[type] = 'PK'), '') + ')' + '' + ISNULL((SELECT ( SELECT '' + 'ALTER TABLE ' + @object_name + ' WITH' + CASE WHEN fk.is_not_trusted = 1 THEN ' NOCHECK' ELSE ' CHECK' END + ' ADD CONSTRAINT [' + fk.name + '] FOREIGN KEY(' + STUFF(( SELECT ', [' + k.cname + ']' FROM fk_columns k WHERE k.constraint_object_id = fk.[object_id] and 1=2 FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '') + ')' + ' REFERENCES [' + SCHEMA_NAME(ro.[schema_id]) + '].[' + ro.name + '] (' + STUFF(( SELECT ', [' + k.rcname + ']' FROM fk_columns k WHERE k.constraint_object_id = fk.[object_id] FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '') + ')' + CASE WHEN fk.delete_referential_action = 1 THEN ' ON DELETE CASCADE' WHEN fk.delete_referential_action = 2 THEN ' ON DELETE SET NULL' WHEN fk.delete_referential_action = 3 THEN ' ON DELETE SET DEFAULT' ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN fk.update_referential_action = 1 THEN ' ON UPDATE CASCADE' WHEN fk.update_referential_action = 2 THEN ' ON UPDATE SET NULL' WHEN fk.update_referential_action = 3 THEN ' ON UPDATE SET DEFAULT' ELSE '' END + '' + 'ALTER TABLE ' + @object_name + ' CHECK CONSTRAINT [' + fk.name + ']' + '' FROM sys.foreign_keys fk WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.objects ro WITH (NOWAIT) ON ro.[object_id] = fk.referenced_object_id WHERE fk.parent_object_id = @object_id FOR XML PATH(N''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)')), '') + ISNULL(((SELECT '' + 'CREATE' + CASE WHEN i.is_unique = 1 THEN ' UNIQUE' ELSE '' END + ' NONCLUSTERED INDEX [' + i.name + '] ON ' + @object_name + ' (' + STUFF(( SELECT ', [' + c.name + ']' + CASE WHEN c.is_descending_key = 1 THEN ' DESC' ELSE ' ASC' END FROM index_column c WHERE c.is_included_column = 0 AND c.index_id = i.index_id FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '') + ')' + ISNULL('' + 'INCLUDE (' + STUFF(( SELECT ', [' + c.name + ']' FROM index_column c WHERE c.is_included_column = 1 AND c.index_id = i.index_id FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 2, '') + ')', '') + '' FROM sys.indexes i WITH (NOWAIT) WHERE i.[object_id] = @object_id AND i.is_primary_key = 0 AND i.[type] = 2 FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)') ), '') select @SQL as script '''.format(self.format_object_name(tab_name)) cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() cursor_source.execute(sql_script) row = cursor_source.fetchone() if not row[0]: return try: cursor_target.execute(row[0]) # drop current table schema if exists conn_target.commit() print("*************schema " + self.format_object_name(tab_name) + " synced *************") print() # give a blank row when finish except: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("-----------schema " + self.format_object_name(tab_name) + " synced failed---------------") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() cursor_source.close() conn_source.close() cursor_target.close() conn_target.close() def get_table_column(self, conn, tab_name): column_names = "" conn = conn cursor_source = conn.cursor() # get object by name from source db sql_script = r'''select name from sys.columns where object_id = object_id('{0}') and is_computed=0 order by object_id '''.format(self.format_object_name(tab_name)) cursor_source.execute(sql_script) result = cursor_source.fetchall() for row in result: column_names = column_names + row[0] + "," return column_names[0:len(column_names) - 1] conn.cursor.close() conn.close() def sync_table_schema(self): #default not sync by referenced other object is_reference = "N" conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() arr_table = [] if (self.s_obj): for tab_name in self.s_obj.split(","): if (tab_name) and (self.exits_object(conn_source, tab_name)0): self.sync_table_schema_byname(tab_name, is_reference) else: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("-----------schema " + self.format_object_name(tab_name) + " not existing in source database---------------") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() else: # sync all tables # get all table in database when not define table name sql_script = ''' SELECT QUOTENAME(s.name)+'.'+ QUOTENAME(o.name) FROM sys.objects o WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.schemas s WITH (NOWAIT) ON o.[schema_id] = s.[schema_id] WHERE o.[type] = 'U' AND o.is_ms_shipped = 0 ''' cursor_source.execute(sql_script) for row in cursor_source.fetchall(): self.sync_table_schema_byname(str(row[0]), is_reference) # sync data from soure table to target table def sync_table_data(self): conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() arr_table = [] if (self.s_obj): arr_table = self.s_obj.split(',') for tab_name in arr_table: if (self.exits_object(conn_target, self.format_object_name(tab_name)) == 0): arr_table.remove(tab_name) print("----------------- warning message -----------------------") print("----------------- warning: table " + tab_name + " not existing in target database ---------------------") print("----------------- warning message -----------------------") else: # get all table in database when not define table name tab_result = cursor_source.execute(r''' SELECT QUOTENAME(s.name)+'.'+ QUOTENAME(o.name) FROM sys.objects o WITH (NOWAIT) JOIN sys.schemas s WITH (NOWAIT) ON o.[schema_id] = s.[schema_id] WHERE o.[type] = 'U' AND o.is_ms_shipped = 0 ''') for row in cursor_source.fetchall(): arr_table.append(str(row[0])) insert_columns = "" insert_columns = self.get_table_column(conn_source, tab_name) for tab_name in arr_table: if (self.f != "Y"): sql_script = "select top 1 {0} from {1} ".format(insert_columns, tab_name) # if exists data in target table,break cursor_target.execute(sql_script) exists = cursor_target.fetchone() if exists: print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print("the target table " + tab_name + " exists data,skiped sync table type from source") print("----------------------- warning message -----------------------") print() continue else: sql_script = "truncate table {0} ".format(tab_name) # if exists data in target table,break cursor_target.execute(sql_script) conn_target.commit() insert_columns = "" insert_columns = self.get_table_column(conn_source, tab_name) insert_prefix = "" # weather has identity column cursor_source.execute(r'''select 1 from sys.columns where object_id = OBJECT_ID('{0}') and is_identity =1 '''.format(tab_name)) exists_identity = None exists_identity = cursor_source.fetchone() if (exists_identity): insert_prefix = "set identity_insert {0} on; ".format(tab_name) # data source insert_sql = "" values_sql = "" current_row = "" counter = 0 sql_script = r''' select {0} from {1} '''.format(insert_columns, tab_name) cursor_source.execute(sql_script) # create insert columns ''' for field in cursor_source.description: insert_columns = insert_columns + str(field[0]) + "," insert_columns = insert_columns[0:len(insert_columns) - 1] ''' insert_prefix = insert_prefix + "insert into {0} ({1}) values ".format(tab_name, insert_columns) for row in cursor_source.fetchall(): counter = counter + 1 for key in row: if (str(key) == "None"): current_row = current_row + r''' null, ''' else: if (type(key) is datetime.datetime): current_row = current_row + r''' '{0}', '''.format(str(key)[0:23]) elif (type(key) is str): # 我槽!!!,这里又有一个坑: current_row = current_row + r''' '{0}', '''.format( key.replace("'", "''").replace('u0000', '').replace('x00', '')) elif (type(key) is Decimal): d = Decimal(key) s = '{0:f}'.format(d) current_row = current_row + r''' '{0}', '''.format(s) elif (type(key) is bytes): # print(hex(int.from_bytes(key, 'big', signed=True) )) current_row = current_row + r''' {0}, '''.format( hex(int.from_bytes(key, 'big', signed=False))) else: current_row = current_row + r''' '{0}', '''.format(key) current_row = current_row[0:len(current_row) - 2] # remove the the last one char "," values_sql = values_sql + "(" + current_row + ")," current_row = "" # execute the one batch when if (counter == 1000): insert_sql = insert_prefix + values_sql insert_sql = insert_sql[0:len(insert_sql) - 1] # remove the the last one char "," if (exists_identity): insert_sql = insert_sql + " ;set identity_insert {0} off;".format(tab_name) try: cursor_target.execute(insert_sql) except: print( "----------------------error " + tab_name + " data synced failed-------------------------") raise conn_target.commit() insert_sql = "" values_sql = "" current_row = "" counter = 0 print(time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time.localtime()) + "*************** " + self.format_object_name( tab_name) + " " + str(1000) + " rows synced *************") if (values_sql): insert_sql = insert_prefix + values_sql insert_sql = insert_sql[0:len(insert_sql) - 1] # remove the the last one char "," if (exists_identity): insert_sql = insert_sql + " ; set identity_insert {0} off;".format(tab_name) # execute the last batch try: cursor_target.execute(insert_sql) except: print("------------------error " + tab_name + " data synced failed------------------------") raise conn_target.commit() insert_sql = "" values_sql = "" current_row = "" print(time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time.localtime()) + "*************** " + self.format_object_name( tab_name) + " " + str( counter) + " rows synced *************") print(time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time.localtime()) + "----------------synced " + self.format_object_name( tab_name) + " data finished---------------") print() cursor_source.close() conn_source.close() cursor_target.close() conn_target.close() def sync_dependent_object(self, obj_name): # 强制覆盖,不需要对依赖对象生效,如果是因为属于依赖对象而被同步的,先检查target中是否存在,如果存在就不继续同步,这里打一个标记来实现 is_refernece = "Y" conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() ''' find dependent objects if exists dependent objects,sync Dependent objects objects in advance ''' sql_check_dependent = r''' SELECT * FROM ( SELECT distinct rtrim(lower(s.type)) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS as obj_type, QUOTENAME(d.referenced_schema_name)+'.'+QUOTENAME(d.referenced_entity_name) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS as obj FROM sys.dm_sql_referenced_entities('{0}','OBJECT') as d inner join sys.sysobjects s on s.id = d.referenced_id union all SELECT distinct rtrim(lower(d.referenced_class_desc)) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS as obj_type, QUOTENAME(d.referenced_schema_name)+'.'+QUOTENAME(d.referenced_entity_name) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS as obj FROM sys.dm_sql_referenced_entities('{0}','OBJECT') as d inner join sys.types s on s.user_type_id = d.referenced_id )t '''.format(self.format_object_name(obj_name)) cursor_source.execute(sql_check_dependent) result = cursor_source.fetchall() for row in result: if row[1]: if (row[0] == "u"): if (row[1]): self.sync_table_schema_byname(row[1], is_refernece) elif (row[0] == "fn" or row[0] == "if"): if (row[1]): self.sync_procudre_by_name("f", row[1], is_refernece) elif (row[0] == "type"): if (row[1]): self.sync_table_variable(row[1], is_refernece) def sync_procudre_by_name(self, type, obj_name, is_reference): conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() if (self.exits_object(conn_source, self.format_object_name(obj_name)) == 0): print("---------------warning message----------------") print("---------------warning: object " + obj_name + " not existing in source database ----------------") print("---------------warning message----------------") print() return if (self.exits_object(conn_target, self.format_object_name(obj_name))  0): if (self.f != "Y"): print("---------------warning message----------------") print("---------------warning: object " + obj_name + " existing in target database ----------------") print("---------------warning message----------------") print() return ''' 本来想直接生成删除语句的: 这里有一个该死的转义,怎么都弄不好,中午先去吃饭吧, 下午回来想了一下,换一种方式,不要死磕转义问题了 sql_script = select 'if object_id('+''''+QUOTENAME(schema_name(uid))+ '' + QUOTENAME(name)+''''+') is not null ' +' drop proc '+QUOTENAME(schema_name(uid))+ '.' + QUOTENAME(name) , OBJECT_DEFINITION(id) from sys.sysobjects where xtype = 'P' and uid not in (16,19) ''' sql_script = r''' select QUOTENAME(schema_name(uid))+'.'+QUOTENAME(name), OBJECT_DEFINITION(id) from sys.sysobjects where xtype in ('P','IF','FN') and uid not in (16,19) ''' if (obj_name): sql_script = sql_script + " and QUOTENAME(schema_name(uid))+ '.' + QUOTENAME(name) ='{0}' ".format( self.format_object_name(obj_name)) cursor_source.execute(sql_script) row = cursor_source.fetchone() try: if type == "f": sql_script = r''' if object_id('{0}') is not null drop function {0} '''.format(self.format_object_name(row[0])) elif type == "p": sql_script = r''' if object_id('{0}') is not null drop proc {0} '''.format(self.format_object_name(row[0])) cursor_target.execute(sql_script) # drop current stored_procudre if exists conn_target.commit() # sync dependent object if (is_reference != "N"): self.sync_dependent_object(self.format_object_name(row[0])) # sync object it self cursor_target.execute(str(row[1])) # execute create stored_procudre script conn_target.commit() print("*************sync sp: " + self.format_object_name(row[0]) + " finished *****************") print() except: print("---------------error message----------------") print("------------------ sync " + row[0] + "sp error --------------------------") print("---------------error message----------------") print() cursor_source.close() conn_source.close() cursor_target.close() conn_target.close() def sync_procudre(self, type): is_reference = "N" conn_source = self.get_connect(self.s_h, self.s_i, self.s_P, self.s_u, self.s_p, self.s_d) conn_target = self.get_connect(self.t_h, self.t_i, self.t_P, self.t_u, self.t_p, self.t_d) cursor_source = conn_source.cursor() cursor_target = conn_target.cursor() if (self.s_obj): for proc_name in self.s_obj.split(","): self.sync_dependent_object(proc_name) self.sync_procudre_by_name(type, proc_name, is_reference) # sync all sp and function else: sql_script = r''' select QUOTENAME(schema_name(uid))+'.'+QUOTENAME(name), OBJECT_DEFINITION(id) from sys.sysobjects where xtype = upper('{0}') and uid not in (16,19) '''.format(type) cursor_source.execute(sql_script) for row in cursor_source.fetchall(): self.sync_dependent_object(row[0]) self.sync_procudre_by_name(type, row[0], is_reference)if __name__ == "__main__": ''' sync = SyncDatabaseObject(s_h="127.0.0.1", s_i = "sql2017", s_P = 49744, s_d="DB01", t_h="127.0.0.1", t_i="sql2017", t_P=49744, t_d="DB02", s_obj_type = "sp", s_obj = "dbo.sp_test01", f="Y") sync.sync_procudre("p") ''' p_s_h = "" p_s_i = "MSSQL" p_s_P = 1433 p_s_d = "" p_s_u = None p_s_p = None p_s_obj = "" p_type = "" p_t_s = "" p_t_i = "MSSQL" p_t_P = "1433" p_t_d = "" p_t_u = None p_t_p = None # force conver target database object,default not force cover target database object p_f = "N" # sync obj type table|sp p_obj_type = None # sync whick database object p_obj = None if len(sys.argv) == 1: print(usage) sys.exit(1) elif sys.argv[1] == '--help': print(usage) sys.exit() elif len(sys.argv) = 2: for i in sys.argv[1:]: _argv = i.split('=') # source server name if _argv[0] == '-s_h': p_s_h = _argv[1] # source server instance name if _argv[0] == '-s_i': if (_argv[1]): p_s_i = _argv[1] # source server instance PORT if _argv[0] == '-s_P': if (_argv[1]): p_s_P = _argv[1] # source database name if _argv[0] == '-s_d': p_s_d = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-s_u': p_s_u = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-s_p': p_s_p = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_h': p_t_h = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_i': if (_argv[1]): p_t_i = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_P': if (_argv[1]): p_t_P = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_d': p_t_d = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_u': p_t_u = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-t_p': p_t_p = _argv[1] if _argv[0] == '-f': if (_argv[1]): p_f = _argv[1] # object type if _argv[0] == '-obj_type': if not (_argv[1]): print("-obj_type can not be null ") exit(0) else: p_obj_type = _argv[1] # object name if _argv[0] == '-obj': if (_argv[1]): p_obj = _argv[1] # require para if p_s_h.strip() == "": print("source server host cannot be null") exit(0) if p_s_d.strip() == "": print("source server host database name cannot be null") exit(0) if p_t_h.strip() == "": print("target server host cannot be null") exit(0) if p_t_d.strip() == "": print("target server host database name cannot be null") exit(0) sync = SyncDatabaseObject(s_h=p_s_h, s_i=p_s_i, s_P=p_s_P, s_d=p_s_d, s_u=p_s_u, s_p=p_s_p, s_obj=p_obj, t_h=p_t_h, t_i=p_t_i, t_P=p_t_P, t_d=p_t_d, t_u=p_t_u, t_p=p_t_p, f=p_f) sync.validated_connect(p_s_h, p_s_i, p_s_P, p_s_d, p_s_u, p_s_p) sync.validated_connect(p_t_h, p_t_i, p_t_P, p_t_d, p_t_u, p_t_p) if (p_f.upper() == "Y"): confirm = input("confirm you want to overwrite the target object ") if confirm.upper() != "Y": exit(0) print("-------------------------- sync begin ----------------------------------") print() if (p_obj_type == "tab"): # sync schema sync.sync_schema() # sync table schema sync.sync_table_schema() # sync data sync.sync_table_data() elif (p_obj_type == "sp"): # sync schema sync.sync_schema() # sync sp sync.sync_procudre("p") elif (p_obj_type == "fn"): # sync schema sync.sync_schema() # sync sp sync.sync_procudre("fn") elif (p_obj_type == "tp"): # sync schema sync.sync_schema() # sync sp sync.sync_table_variable() else: print("-obj_type is not validated") print() print("-------------------------- sync finish ----------------------------------")

总结

以上所述是小编给大家介绍的基于Python的SQL Server数据库实现对象同步轻量级,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问欢迎给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的!

本文由手机凤凰发布于凤凰彩票手机app数据库,转载请注明出处:类似需求用SSIS或者其他ETL工作很容易实现

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